The first known human presence on Formentera is in the Bronze Age, whenthey built the megalithic tomb of Ca na Costa, dated in 1600 a. C. After a timehe remained uninhabited, have traces of the passage of cultures Phoenician,Punic and Roman.

There is no reference to whether the island was inhabited after Visigothinvasions, but at least from the eleventh century, during the Arab occupation, the island had a population stable, as remains of houses, wells and cisternsof the time .

The troops of Jaime I of Aragon, led by Guillem de Montgrí conquered Ibiza and Formentera in 1235, which were incorporated into the Kingdom ofMallorca. Formentera was still inhabited by Saracens, according to reports the Llibre dels feits.

After the expulsion of the Muslim population, the attempt to establish a permanent population on the island failed, the toughness of the island and the insecurity caused by Berber raids ended in the last years of thefourteenth century to what is known as the first stocking. This time is theRomanesque Chapel of "Sa Tanca Vella" in San Francisco Javier, built in1336.

For the rest of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Formentera was found only occasionally populated by inhabitants of the island of Ibiza.
It was in 1695 when there was the final repopulation of the island, made ​​by people of Ibiza after donating part of the island of Ibiza Marc Ferrer, in payment for services rendered. Some years later, in 1726, erected the first church in Formentera, dedicated to St. Francis Xavier, built as a fortress in which to shelter from attacks by pirates. Some defense and lookout towerson the coast complemented the defense system of the island and becamethe second stocking definitive. Over time, they were starting to create somesmall towns around the churches that were built, although the majority of the population has ever been found scattered in small cottages. By the mid-eighteenth century the population of Formentera was four hundred and late nineteenth century the island had almost two thousand inhabitants.

From the 60 and 70 began to develop a fledgling tourist industry,characterized by an atmosphere of relaxation and quiet (a little different from that of Ibiza). In parallel, in the late 60's hippy movement began in Formentera, a fact that has deeply influenced the character of the island.